Armoured cars – no tanks – and guns……..

Thebusinessend(1)
Must have been an intimidating sight in Dublin, 1921 – a Rolls Royce armoured car like the one used at the Custom House

“…armoured cars with their attendant Crossley tenders, having their beautiful machine guns mounted in front….with their low fire-spitting eye, levelled at the people….” (Joe Leonard’s vivid depiction in 1948).

The crown forces reaction to the attack on the Custom House included two armoured cars. One was a Rolls Royce (RR), the other a Peerless. They effectively surrounded the building and cut off the attackers’ escape routes.

At least four cars were on call for support to the Auxies in Dublin at any one time. There were in all 20 armoured cars available to British forces for general duties in Dublin military district.

RollsRoyceACc1916Dublin
RR Armoured Car at Dublin’s Royal Barracks (now Collins Barracks Museum) “about 1916”.
ARR2(2)
Restored ARR-2 at Glasnevin Cemetery

In those times an armoured car was so highly valued by the British military that if one was captured, the crew faced court martial. That rule may have stemmed from the original British users of armoured cars in WWI – the Royal Naval Air Service! Its parent the Royal Navy traditionally brought – and still brings – any captain who loses his ship before a court martial. Such an event actually occurred in Ireland in 1921 when the IRA – several Custom House men among them – captured a Peerless armoured car in the daring attempted rescue of Sean MacEoin from Mountjoy Jail 11 days before the Custom House burning.

The RR vehicle was more modern, lighter and practical even though designed earlier than the Peerless; but both types were formidable and potentially deadly opponents for the very lightly armed IRA that day. As well as being almost invulnerable to small calibre bullets, both types carried machine guns in turrets. Several IRA fatalities were said to have been hit by machine gun fire.

Rolls Royce

The actual RR car used on 25 May 1921 is believed to be shown, covered by its regular users, in the photo (captured & labelled by IRA Intelligence) of F Company Auxies and military in Dublin Castle yard where it was based, below.

Sparrow & rest of ugly mob

The RR cars were known as Whippets; apparently this was not a British term but seems to have been coined at some stage by the Irish.

RR car
Line drawing of RR showing views from front, back, side and above.

RR Spec

The vehicle was designed in 1914 and built on a Silver Ghost car chassis. Its speed was pretty fast for the time. It had a crew of three, supplied from the Tank Corps.

Therealbusinessend (2)
Defence Forces restoration of the famous RR ‘Sliabh na mBan’ (ARR-2). BTW, no bubbles in the paintwork, just rain droplets from a sun shower!

An imposing sight on a Dublin street or lane – especially when you were confronted by one – even as a ‘totally innocent’. It must have been particularly worrying if you – as an IRA man or woman – came across one, with its accompanying foot soldiers, while you were carrying a little ‘pop-gun’ or bomb or some incriminating message. Armoured cars were used extensively by day and night in the city.

Peerless near Fruit Market
Peerless with BA troops up to no good on Halston Street, Dublin. The Fruit & Veg Market is visible in the distant background.
Dublin under Brit rule
RR outside ruined GPO in Sackville (O’Connell) Street

The RR was armed with a Vicker’s heavy machine gun which could fire .303 calibre (rifle) bullets at a rate of up to 500 rounds per minute from a belt holding 250 (At least 1,000 rounds were carried in the cars). The barrel was encased in a water-filled cooling jacket to prevent overheating from sustained firing. The gun’s effective range was 2,000 metres, which in the close quarters of the fight around the Custom House was overkill and totally lethal. The writer was impressed by a close-up view of such a gun at a Griffith-Collins commemoration in Glasnevin in the recent past.

Vickers1(1)
On the Defence Forces restoration of the famous ‘Sliabh na mBan’, ARR-2, the gun is not the original (another story). Rain droplets sparkle on the paintwork.

Peerless Armoured Car

Peerless

As the Reader will probably agree just by the look of it, the Peerless was a dog: a primitive, early attempt at an armoured car. It was not suited to Irish conditions in any event – too heavy for typical rural roads or bridges, clumsy and hard to maneuver. Back axles tended to break. As an example, the one captured by the IRA on 14 May 1921 could not make it up the slight hill on Malahide Road from Fairview; it had to be abandoned  (Although in fairness, Pat McCrea, the car’s IRA driver didn’t know to use ventilator grilles to avoid overheating the engine). It was parked beneath some trees and set alight after its machine guns were taken out and spirited away.

AP SpecBased on a truck chassis made by the American Peerless Motor Company the bodies were manufactured from 1919 by the British Austin motor company (who more successfully and much later gave the world the iconic Mini car).

It was equipped with two side-by-side turrets which mounted British Hotchkiss machine guns. Peerless cars were crewed by private soldiers drawn from British cavalry, infantry and artillery units in Ireland and were driven by Royal Army Service Corps (RASC) personnel.

Maybe not so scary Peerless
A Peerless passing through crowds on Sackville (O’Connell) Street 1921 – maybe not so scary to everybody? Still from newsreel segment in the film “Irish Destiny”.

In a fanciful postcard drawing in the Vinny Byrne scrapbook collection, one thing is beyond argument and totally unmistakable – that is a Peerless illustrated with its uniquely weird double turrets firing at the Custom House.

Vinny_Byrne_Photo_56
Peerless armoured car at North West corner of Custom House site, near the Loopline Bridge (www.militaria-archive.com)

Below is a more realistic photo of the RR armoured car at the Custom House burning.

RR at CH
Still taken from film “Irish Destiny” segment of newsreel images from 25 May 1921

Later Irish military service

Both types of armoured cars entered service in 1922 with the Provisional Government Army, later the National Army. The machines were designated ARR (armoured Rolls Royce) and AP (armoured Peerless). They saw much action in the Civil War, overwhelmingly with the Free State forces.

The Mutineer at Four Courts
‘The Mutineer’ anti-Treaty IRA RR armoured car at the Four Courts
Cw1
And after its capture by Free State forces

Two were famously used by republicans  – ‘The Mutineer’, ineffectively, in defence of the Four Courts, later employed by the Free State under the name ‘Ex-Mutineer’; and another in Co Sligo (originally called ‘Ballinalee’ by the Free State and then ‘Lough Gill’ in republican service) which changed hands at least twice. There are many photos of armoured cars in Civil War action to be found by a simple Google search. One, below – although the cars are just parked at Wellington Barracks – includes a familiar Custom House attacker.

TE with ARRs1
Tom Ennis, centre, in front of two ARR’s, still with walking cane after his wounds at the Custom House (This photo originally appeared in the Cork Examiner, 10 July 1922).

Leaving those and other stories to another day, it says a lot for British design and engineering that most RR’s acquired in 1922 were used up to 1944 by the Irish Defence Forces (DF) and were also still in service with the British in WW2 (examples can be seen in historic film footage from the early stages of the North Africa campaign).

Irish_Army_Rolls-Royce_Armoured_Car_Co._Cork_1941
Irish Army RR in Co Cork, 1941

Only two of those survive in running condition

ARR-2 (Sliabh na mBan) restored by DF and based at Curragh Camp – a tribute to Irish engineering and preservation of historical artefacts; and

ARR-1 (originally named Danny Boy, then Tom Keogh after his death in the Civil War) rebuilt by a private collector and kept in England.

Peerless-cavday2009g
The Curragh Peerless (http://forum.irishmilitaryonline.com)

In addition, a restored/rebuilt Peerless armoured car – is kept by the DF Cavalry Corps at Curragh Camp. We wonder if it’s in the Civil War photos below?

Peerless landing
Struggling to get a Peerless off the ship at Passage West, August 1922. It was too heavy for the dockside crane (NLI pic)
Armoured Car, Passage West, Cork
The same Free State Peerless later maneuvering at Passage West, Cork (NLI pic)

Personal Weapons

Apart from their accompanying armoured cars, Auxies were always heavily armed and had Crossley Tenders as transport. For a patrol, an individual cadet could select from this impressive list of weapons:

  • Handgun & 50 roundsWebley service revolvers and various automatic or semi-automatic pistols;
SMLE
Lee Enfield rifle (http://www.rifleman.org.uk/The_Rifle_Short_Magazine_Lee-Enfield.htm)
  • Lee Enfield rifle (.303 calibre), bayonet & 40 roundsparticularly accurate and deadly in experienced hands;
Winchester rifle
The famous Winchester repeating rifle (http://www.winchesterguns.com)
  • Winchester repeating rifle & 40 roundsfamous from old cowboy films;
  • Winchester shotgun & 40 rounds;
Lewis gun
A Lewis machine gun (http://modernfirearms.net)
  • Lewis Machine gun (.303 calibre) plus 5 drums of ammoat least one was deployed by crown forces at the Custom House;
  • Flare pistol & 25 flares;
  • Mills hand grenade.

A whole Dublin Brigade IRA Company would have done well in 1921 to equal the arsenal of weapons available to a mere section of Auxies whose ammunition supply alone would have greatly exceeded that available in Brigade dumps around the city at any time.

Big auxy & ambulance
T/Cadet Waddingham armed with rifle after the Custom House battle (NLI pic).

Of course the Auxies carried their armaments legally and openly under Britsh rule and did not lose weapons or ammo to raids and captures on anything like the scale the IRA suffered. But some of them (like many ordinary British Tommies), did sell arms to the IRA on occasion and several were caught and jailed for such offences.

Hopefully above illustrates the scale of opposition, based on weapons alone, faced by the IRA at the Custom House.

By the way, during the War of Independence British tanks were used in Dublin, mostly for barracks defence and sometimes as battering rams on raids. But none appeared at the Custom House battle.

Des White

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s